Figures show hundreds detained in Police Scotland cells for immigration purposes, prompting calls for greater transparency over Home Office enforcement.
The UK's so-called 'hostile environment' immigration policy in the UK has led to torture victims being left destitute, a charity claims.
Torture victims and vulnerable women were among hundreds of asylum seekers forced to make 400-mile round trips from Scotland to England to make fresh claims for sanctuary in the UK.
More than 200 British citizens in Glasgow underwent spot checks by immigration officers in 21 months, prompting claims the Home Office has been conducting racial profiling.
Scottish legislation to protect trafficking victims is being overruled by UK immigration policy, say campaigners.